The proposed restaurant would have been built next to the ancient Baths of Caracalla, but plans were rejected.
Mayor of Rome Virginia Raggi praised the decision on Twitter.
The baths date from the 3rd century and sit near the center of the city, fairly close to the Coliseum and other famous sites. Caracalla ruled as co-emperor from 198 until 211 with his father. He then ruled alone until his assassination in 217.
Despite the decision, visitors to Rome will not have to travel too far to get their hands on a Big Mac.
The Italian capital already has 40 McDonald’s restaurants, according to Reuters, with outlets close to famous landmarks such as the Vatican and the Spanish Steps.
CNN has contacted McDonald’s for comment, but has yet to receive a response.
Rome has struggled to deal with the sheer number of visitors in recent years.
As a result the city has introduced a raft of new laws designed to improve behavior and boost respect for the ancient city.
Anyone caught posing as a Roman centurion with tourists and demanding cash can now be fined 450 euros ($400). While that might seem rather unlikely, new rules against street drinking are perhaps more understandable.
It’s now illegal for bars to serve alcohol between 2 a.m. and 7 a.m., while anyone with an open alcoholic drinks container found drinking in the street after 10 p.m. can be hit with a fine.